European Medical Alliance. Get Instant Access. Theories of interpersonal attraction attempt to specify the conditions that lead people to like, and in some cases love, each other. Attraction is a two-way process, involving not only the person who is attracted but also the attractor. Relationships are central to human social existence. Personal accounts by people who have been forced to endure long periods of isolation serve as reminders of people’s dependence on others, and research suggests that close relationships are the most vital ingredient in a happy and meaningful life. In short, questions dealing with attraction are among the most fundamental in social psychology. The major theories addressing interpersonal attraction have a common theme: reinforcement.
In the exam, you will be asked a range of questions on the topic of relationships, which may include questions about research methods or using mathematical skills based on research into relationships. There is no guarantee that a mark question will be asked in this topic though so it is important to have a good understanding of all of the different areas linked to the topic. There will be 24 marks for relationship questions, so you can expect to spend about 30 minutes on this section, but this is not a strict rule.
A related body of work applies an evolutionary perspective to explain the psychology of human mating behavior. A key element to this theory is.
Evolutionary psychologists who study mating behavior often begin with a hypothesis about how modern humans mate: say, that men think about sex more than women do. Then they gather evidence — from studies, statistics and surveys — to support that assumption. Lately, however, a new cohort of scientists have been challenging the very existence of the gender differences in sexual behavior that Darwinians have spent the past 40 years trying to explain and justify on evolutionary grounds.
Of course, no fossilized record can really tell us how people behaved or thought back then, much less why they behaved or thought as they did. Nonetheless, something funny happens when social scientists claim that a behavior is rooted in our evolutionary past. Assumptions about that behavior take on the immutability of a physical trait — they come to seem as biologically rooted as opposable thumbs or ejaculation.
Jade Wu is a clinical psychologist who specializes in health psychology. In the clinic, she uses evidence-based treatments to help patients improve their health and cope with illness. In the lab, she conducts research on the role of sleep in chronic health conditions.
Psychologists have worked out that they can get swarms of student participants in mate-choice studies by offering speed-dating opportunities.
However, research has not yet revealed why this effect is common among adults who speak very different languages — and even in infants as young as four. Various theories have been put forward. One holds that levels of emotional arousal may be key — that both kiki and a spiky shape trigger relatively high levels of arousal, compared with bouba and a blob.
Now a new study , reported in Psychological Science , provides compelling evidence for this idea. The researchers also take their findings further, arguing that they could have important implications for understanding the early evolution of languages. I will strengthen you and help you. This passage, pulled from Isaiah And this protective persona might affect you much more than you think. As of recently, however, this narrative has not stood up to scrutiny.
The first pre-registered replication of this study , published in the journal Psychological Science , suggests that the effect was probably no more than an exciting false positive.
Research on adult attachment is guided by the assumption that the same motivational system that gives rise to the close emotional bond between parents and their children is responsible for the bond that develops between adults in emotionally intimate relationships. The objective of this essay is to provide a brief overview of the history of adult attachment research, the key theoretical ideas, and a sampling of some of the research findings.
This essay has been written for people who are interested in learning more about research on adult attachment. The theory of attachment was originally developed by John Bowlby – , a British psychoanalyst who was attempting to understand the intense distress experienced by infants who had been separated from their parents. Bowlby observed that separated infants would go to extraordinary lengths e.
At the time of Bowlby’s initial writings, psychoanalytic writers held that these expressions were manifestations of immature defense mechanisms that were operating to repress emotional pain, but Bowlby noted that such expressions are common to a wide variety of mammalian species, and speculated that these behaviors may serve an evolutionary function.
This page has been archived and is no longer updated. Published online 2 June Nature doi Matt Kaplan. Speed dating is not just popular among those looking for romance. Psychologists have worked out that they can get swarms of student participants in mate-choice studies by offering speed-dating opportunities on university campuses in return for the right to analyse the dating behaviour during the events. A study in Psychological Science points out that chivalric behaviour created by the speed-dating experience may be skewing the data 1.
Normally in speed dating, men walk around a room and visit a succession of seated women for mini dates just a few minutes long. Later, the participants note down whom they would like to meet again. If there is a match, the organizers help the people to get in touch. Psychologists have found that although men choose, on average, half of the women present, women choose to see only a third of the men again 2 , 3.
This isn’t really a surprise. Among animals, females are usually the picky ones, because they make the larger reproductive investment. However, the new research, by Eli Finkel and Paul Eastwick, social psychologists at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, demonstrates that tinkering with the speed-dating format alters human behaviour, dramatically changing the outcome.
A great deal of your success in relationships—or lack thereof—can be explained by how you learned to relate to others throughout your childhood as well as later in life. Attachment Theory is an area of psychology that describes the nature of emotional attachment between humans. It begins as children with our attachment to our parents. Attachment theory began in the s and has since amassed a small mountain of research behind it.
Conspiracy theories have been cooked up throughout history, but they are increasingly visible lately, likely due in part to the president of the United States routinely embracing or creating them. Given that any particular conspiracy theory is unlikely to be the subject of mainstream consensus, what draws people to them? New research by Josh Hart, associate professor of psychology, suggests that people with certain personality traits and cognitive styles are more likely to believe in conspiracy theories.
The research was recently published in the Journal of Individual Differences. People who are reluctant to believe in conspiracy theories tend to have the opposite qualities. Hart and his student, Molly Graether ’17, surveyed more than 1, American adults.
When choosing a partner, people start by looking at the options that are available. Kerckhoff and Davis studied student couples mainly in short-term relationships of fewer than 18 months and discovered several important criteria people use to choose a partner. According to this theory, there are several levels of filters that people apply.
place metaphor resonates with online dating participants and how this conceptual In A. Barak (Ed.), Psychological aspects of cyberspace: Theory, research.
If you are a romantic, you are probably not on Tinder, the latest big addition to the online dating world. Tinder is the aptly named heterosexual version of Grindr, an older hook-up app that identifies available gay, bisexual, or “curious” partners in the vicinity. It is also the modern blend of hot-or-not, in that users are required to judge pictures from fellow Tinderers by simply swiping right if they like them or left if they don’t, and s telephone bars, in that phone flirting precedes face-to-face interaction.
More importantly, and in stark contrast with the overwhelmingly negative media reception, Tinder has managed to overcome the two big hurdles to online dating. First, Tinder is cool, at least to its users. Indeed, whereas it is still somewhat embarrassing to confess to using EHarmony or Match. Second, through eliminating time lags and distance, Tinder bridges the gap between digital and physical dating, enabling users to experience instant gratification and making Tinder almost as addictive as Facebook the average user is on it minutes per day.
In our technosexual era, the process of dating has not only been gamified, but also sexualised, by technology. Mobile dating is much more than a means to an end, it is an end in itself. With Tinder, the pretext is to hook-up, but the real pleasure is derived from the Tindering process. Tinder is just the latest example for the sexualisation of urban gadgets: it is nomophobia, Facebook-porn and Candy Crush Saga all in one. What it does, however, is to increase average levels of attractiveness compared to the real world.
Given that most people spend a great deal of time curating their Facebook profiles — uploading selfies from Instagram and reporting well calculated and sophisticated food, music, and film interest — one is left wondering how on earth Tinder users are single in the first place … but only until you meet them. Like any successful internet service, Tinder enables people to fulfil some basic evolutionary and social needs.
If we apply the evolutionary theory to the way people use Tinder, we find that differences emerge because the traits that are sought by men and women are quite different, especially in short-term relationships. If Shakespeare were alive right now, he would definitely approve of Tinder. He would definitely have a thing or two to say about young people using Tinder for fun.
In the s, 40 percent of couples in the US met through friends, and about 20 percent met in bars, in , 10 percent had met their partners on the internet, and by about 25 percent had. Between and , more than one-third of couples who got married in the US met through online dating sites.
The Dating Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Emerging Science of Darwinian theory with the declaration, “Nature will unapologetically weed your genes.
W hat do humans really want in a long-term partner? If people were given a limited menu of characteristics from which to choose, what would be the non-negotiables? And how much of what we value in a partner is influenced by culture and how much is innate? In a nifty new report out of the University of Swansea in the U.
The study , which was published in the Journal of Personality on Sept. At first they spent big on everything, but as their budget grew smaller in each round of the study, they had to really figure out what they wanted. After kindness, men almost universally favored physical attractiveness and women chose good financial prospects. We asked the researcher Andrew G. Thomas, a senior lecturer in Psychology at Swansea, to explain his research.
If we find that men and women act in a similar way across the globe, then this adds weight to the idea that some behaviors develop in spite of culture rather than because of it. The results suggest that across the board, men show a preference for youth and beauty, while women show a preference for ability to provide.
The modern world provides two new ways to find love — online matchmaking and speed dating. In the last few years, these methods have moved from a last resort for the loveless to a more accepted way for millions to try to meet their mates. While this has led to dates, relationships and marriages around the globe, it has also been a boon for enterprising researchers — providing huge datasets chronicling real world behavior. For millions of years, humans have been selecting mates using the wealth of information gleaned in face-to-face interactions — not just appearance, but characteristics such as tone of voice, body language, and scent, as well as immediate feedback to their own communications.
Does mate selection differ when those looking are presented with an almost overwhelming number of potential partners, but limited to a few photos, statistics, and an introductory paragraph about each one? What information do online daters focus on?
5 Psychological Theories of Love · Liking vs. Loving · Compassionate vs. Passionate Love · The Color Wheel Model of Love · Triangular Theory of Love.
In response to problems in our environment, we adapt both physically and psychologically to ensure our survival and reproduction. Sexual selection theory describes how evolution has shaped us to provide a mating advantage rather than just a survival advantage and occurs through two distinct pathways: intrasexual competition and intersexual selection.
Gene selection theory, the modern explanation behind evolutionary biology, occurs through the desire for gene replication. Evolutionary psychology connects evolutionary principles with modern psychology and focuses primarily on psychological adaptations: changes in the way we think in order to improve our survival. Two major evolutionary psychological theories are described: Sexual strategies theory describes the psychology of human mating strategies and the ways in which women and men differ in those strategies.
Error management theory describes the evolution of biases in the way we think about everything. In fact, you may even consider flossing your teeth for the first time all year. But how did you learn these particular behaviors? Where did you get the idea that a first date should be at a nice restaurant or someplace unique? It is possible that we have been taught these behaviors by observing others. It is also possible, however, that these behaviors—the fancy clothes, the expensive restaurant—are biologically programmed into us.
Viren Swami does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment. Some time ago, I found myself single again shock, horror! But too often those opinions were based on anecdotes, assumptions about human behaviour I knew to be wrong, or — worse — pure misogyny.
As a psychologist who has studied attraction, I felt certain that science could offer a better understanding of romantic attraction than all the self-help experts, pick-up artists and agony aunts in the world.
Social exchange theory proposes that social behavior is the result of an exchange process. The purpose of this exchange is to maximize benefits and minimize costs. According to this theory, developed by sociologist George Homans, people weigh the potential benefits and risks of social relationships. When the risks outweigh the rewards, people will terminate or abandon that relationship. Most relationships are made up of a certain amount of give-and-take, but this does not mean that they are always equal.
Costs involve things that you see as negatives such as having to put money, time, and effort into a relationship. For example, if you have a friend that always has to borrow money from you, then this would be seen as a high cost. Your friend might be a bit of a freeloader, but bring a lot of fun and excitement to your life. As you are determining the value of the friendship, you might decide that the benefits outweigh the potential costs.
Social exchange theory suggests that we essentially take the benefits and subtract the costs in order to determine how much a relationship is worth.